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The Vedic accent is marked by underscores and vertical overscores in red.
The original text (as authored by the Rishis) is close to but not identical to the extant Samhitapatha, but metrical and other observations allow reconstruction (in part at least) of the original text from the extant one, as printed in the Harvard Oriental Series, vol.
Some of its verses continue to be recited during Hindu rites of passage celebrations such as weddings and religious prayers, making it probably the world's oldest religious text in continued use.
Within each book, the hymns are arranged in collections each dealing with a particular deity: Agni comes first, Indra comes second, and so on.
Books 2 through 7 are internally homogeneous in style, while Books 1, 8 and 10 are compilation of verses of internally different styles suggesting that these books are likely a collection of compositions by many authors.
The first mandala is the largest, with 191 hymns and 2,006 verses, and it was added to the text after Books 2 through 9.
The oral tradition still continued into recent times. Of these, Śākalya is the only one to have survived in its entirety.
The Rigveda was probably not written down until the Gupta period (4th to 6th centuries AD), by which time the Brahmi script had become widespread (the oldest surviving manuscripts are from ~1040 AD, discovered in Nepal). recensions) of Rig Veda are known to have existed in the past.As with the other Vedas, the redacted text has been handed down in several versions, most importantly the Padapatha, in which each word is isolated in pausa form and is used for just one way of memorization; and the Samhitapatha, which combines words according to the rules of sandhi (the process being described in the Pratisakhya) and is the memorized text used for recitation.The Padapatha and the Pratisakhya anchor the text's true meaning, In order to achieve this the oral tradition prescribed very structured enunciation, involving breaking down the Sanskrit compounds into stems and inflections, as well as certain permutations.They are attributed and dedicated to a rishi (sage) and his family of students.Within each collection, the hymns are arranged in descending order of the number of stanzas per hymn.
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